The megalithic monuments known as passage graves are always associated with a powerful elderly woman, the Cailleach or Witch, who, in folklore, is often the builder or creator of the chambered cairns. In general she is known as the Cailleach Birra or the Hag of Beare, but in Sligo and at Loughcrew her true name is still remembered: she is called the Garavogue, and she is associated with the River Garavogue in Sligo and Sliabh na Cailleach.
Thanks to Ancient DNA, we now know with a degree of certainty that the passage graves were built by colonizing farmers who arrive in Sligo, most likely from the Carnac region in Brittany, more than 6,000 years ago. We also know from genetics that these farmers, originating in the near East, have traveled through the Mediterranean Sea from their homelands in Anatolia in Turkey, beginning their great migration around 8,000 BC. They are the first cattle farmers, and bring a herd of domesticated cattle with them on their voyage.
The Great Goddess
The chief deity in the religion of the farmers seems to be a powerful earth goddess associated with fertility and animal husbandry. We might think of her as Eve, Tiamat, Ishtar, or Inanna, the mother of all goddesses. The invention of farming and domestication of animals saw a group of people departing from the ways of hunting and gathering, and entering into a new relationship with the Earth.
As part of this new arrangement the people plough and fertilize the earth in a manner markedly different to the ways of hunters and gatherers. The early farmers adopt a much more formal religion, and when they arrive in Western Europe a kind of fusion of symbolism occurs in the lands around the Bay of Biscay, when the farmers seem to adopt some of the ideas and ideals of the Mesolithic people. Passage graves, a new type of monument appearing around 6,700 years ago, seem to represent this merging of cultures.
The Sligo Settlement
When neolithic farmers began to arrive in the Sligo region some 6,000 years ago, they brought agriculture in the form of crops and domesticated cattle, wild animals in the form of red deer, the practice of building megalithic monuments, and a new religion based around an earth mother goddess in the form of the Cailleach. The oldest neolithic monument currently known on the west coast or Ireland is the causewayed enclosure at Magheraboy, which has been securely dated to 4,150 BC.
The passage grave culture took root in Sligo across the Cúil Iorra peninsula where the great triple complex of Carrowmore, Knocknarea and Carns Hill are arranged along an east-west axis. By around 3,500 BC when the central monument at Carrowmore was built, the colony had spread down to Lough Arrow and the Bricklieve Mountains, where the great neolithic monuments at Heapstown, Moytura, Carrowkeel and kesh Corran are located.
The great chamber of Listoghil, the central monument at Carrowmore, is oriented to the left of the Ballygawley Mountains, where Lough Dá Gé, the Lake of the Two Geese is located. The mountain peaks to the west of the lake, represent the body of the Cailleach lying flat within the landscape. Each of the four peaks, Anaghmore, Slieve Dá Eán, Silabh Dargan and Cailleach a Birra's House is capped by a neolithic cairn, the most westerly being the Cailleach's House.
At sunrise on the Samhain and Imbolc cross-quarter days, the sun rises from this most magical of lakes, and it appears that the Cailleach is giving birth to the sun from her watery womb, the bottomless enchanted lake in the mountain.
The Garavogue, as a landscape goddess, is remembered as being the builder of the monuments, in some stories she is the creator of the landscape. In both Sligo and Loughcrew she carries the stones down from the mountains in her white apron and uses them to construct the chambers and monuments. At both sites the passage-graves are built with glacial erratics.
Sliabh na Cailleach
In the folklore, the Cailleach files or leaps from mountain to mountain carrying her collection of stones. On her way she passes the Bricklieve mountains, where there are many fine chambered monuments built from quarried limestone at Carrowkeel, and her sisters or cousins inhabit the Enchanted Caves at Keash Corran. She is known around the shores of Lough Cé and has an association with the megaliths on Corn ( Cairn ) Hill in County Longford. The next great assemblage of megalithic monuments is found spread out across the Loughcrew Hills, Sliabh na Cailleach, in County Meath.
The Loughcrew Hills, a range of hard limestone, stretch over four kilometers east to west. The Cailleach threw plenty of sandstone boulders about the hills, and these huge chunks of rock were dismantled or disarticulated by the farmers, and used to construct the chambers and cairns.
The Hill of the Witch
The monuments at Slaibh na Cailleach are located within a beautiful landscape with tremendous views across the plain of Ireland. The main, central or focal monument is Cairn T or Carn Bán, and this is the home of the Cailleach. A ring of large erratic kerb-stones encircles the base of a great cairn, visible from many miles all around. The kerb-stone on the northern side is a huge, horned slab of rock known as the Hag's Chair. This monolithic throne bears megalithic art, and according to legend is where the Cailleach would sit and smoke her pipe, contemplating her kingdom.
The great cairn at Loughcrew has a spectacular alignment to the rising sun on the spring and autumn equinoxes. As the sun rises in the sky, the beam of light flashes into the depths of the cave / womb / chamber where it strikes a beautiful panel of engraved neolithic art. The interaction is the panel of light across the ancient symbols is a profound act of communication from our stone age ancestors. The patch of light highlights various symbols and glyphs before focusing upon the main engraved sun symbol.
The Cailleach is more difficult to spot in the Boyne Valley. There are many landscape goddesses in the area, but no stories of great witches building the monuments.
The myths of the Boyne concern the conception of two of the major deities from Celtic mythology, Aengus Og and Cú Cullain.